The Census (2011) data showed a significant declining trend in the Child Sex Ratio (CSR), calculated as number of girls for every 1000 boys between age group of 0-6 years, with an all time low of 918. The decline in CSR has been unabated since 1961. A skewed CSR indicates that number of girls is getting disproportionately less in comparison to the boys. It reflects both pre birth discrimination manifested through gender biased sex selection, and post birth discrimination against girls. The decline is widespread across the country and has expanded to rural as well as tribal areas.
Though the CSR is influenced by number of factors such as under-registration of girls, differential infant & child mortality, strong socio-cultural and religious biases, preference for sons & discrimination towards daughters, it is in large measure determined by Sex Ratio at Birth (SRB). SRB is defined as number of girls born per 1000 boys. The SRB for the period 2010-12 was 908 as per SRS Statistical Report-2012, which is quite low as against the internationally observed normal SRB of 952 clearly pointing out to lesser number of girls born than the boys in India. A low SRB is directly linked to easy availability and affordability of diagnostic tools leading to increasing Sex Selective Elimination (SSE).
The sharp decline as pointed by Census 2011 data is a call for urgent action, as it highlights that the girl child is increasingly being excluded from life itself. Coordinated & convergent efforts are needed to ensure survival, protection and education of the girl child. The Government has announced Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao (BBBP) Scheme to address the issue of decline in CSR through a mass campaign across the country, and focussed intervention & Multi-Sectoral Action in 100 gender critical districts.
The District Collectors/Deputy Commissioners (DCs) will lead and coordinate action of all departments for implementation of BBBP at the District level.
Overall GoalCelebrate the Girl Child & Enable her Education
1. Prevent gender biased sex selective elimination
2. Ensure survival & protection of the girl child
3. Ensure education of the girl child